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Alphagan (Brimonidine)

Description

Approximately 2 out of 100 people over 45 years old suffer glaucoma. Glaucoma is manifested mainly through an increase in intraocular pressure. However, every fourth does not notice his illness. If you do not carry out timely treatment with effective remedies, like Alphagan, glaucoma will provoke progressive visual impairment up to complete loss.

Generic Brimonidine - a selective ?2-adrenoagonist, has a stimulating effect on ?2-adrenergic receptors. When it is used in the form of eye drops, 1.5 mg / ml the maximum effect of reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) is reached after 2 hours, hypotensive effect of Alphagan is provided by reducing the formation and increase of intraocular fluid at the uveoscleral path.

First Alphagan was used for the treatment of glaucoma in the United States in 1996. Currently, generic Brimonidine is registered in more than 50 countries.

Alphagan eye drops ingredients are the following: active ingredient - brimonidine tartrate - 1.5 mg / ml., sodium chlorite, sodium chlorate, chlorine dioxide, carmellose sodium, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride dehydrate, magnesium chloride hexahydrate, boric acid, sodium borate decahydrate, hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide, water.

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What is the pharmacodynamics of Alphagan and generic Brimonidine?

- Basic drug absorption occurs through the cornea, to a lesser extent - through the conjunctiva and sclera;
- Start action - within 15-30 minutes after instillation;
- Maximum hypotensive effect after 2:00;
- The maximum concentration is observed after 1-4 hours;
- Duration of action - 12 hours;
- Application - 2 (1-3) times a day;
- Metabolized in the liver;
- Excreted via the kidneys;
- The degree of reduction of intraocular pressure - up to 25% of the original.

Alphagan medication is recommended to drop in the conjunctival cavity in 1-2 drops at intervals of 12 hours.

What are the indications and contraindications for use of Alphagan?

* Ocular hypertension.
* Open-angle glaucoma or elevated intraocular pressure.
* As monotherapy patients who are contraindicated the use of local ?-adrenergic blockers.
* In combined therapy with other drugs to lower intraocular pressure when monotherapy does not bring the desired result.

Among contraindications of Alphagan, doctors recommend to pay special attention at these ones:

- hypersensitivity to brimonidine and other ingredients;
- simultaneous treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs);
- children less than 2 years of age, low body weight (20 kg);
- during breast-feeding.

What is the optimal dose and how to take the drug to avoid side effects?

Alphagan - preparation for locally use. Its instilled into the affected eye (the conjunctival sac), 1 drop of up to 3 times a day, every 8 hours this kind of treatment can be combined with other ophthalmic preparations for reducing intraocular pressure. In case of simultaneous use of several drugs, the interval between their alternate dropping should not be less than 5 min.

Elderly patients (? 65 years) after the application of a single dose Cmax, AUC and T ? of Alphagan not differ from those patients of younger age. This shows that age has no effect on systemic drug absorption and elimination. No dose adjustment for the elderly is required.

Although Alphagan is safe, manufacturer informs about possible side effects in a form of: allergic conjunctivitis, itching mucosa, cataract, headache, sleepiness or insomnia, dizziness, bronchitis, cough, gastro-intestinal disturbances, rash, nausea.

According to numerous clinical studies, Alphagan is effective antihypertensive drug for the local treatment of open-angle glaucoma, which in addition to dual mechanism of action of lowering intraocular pressure has neuroprotective effects, well tolerated and with minimal side effects.

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