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Amantadine is used for prevention and treatment of certain types of influenza (influenza A type). This medicine improves the patientís condition and shortens the period of treatment. The medicine is referred to antiviral class and designed primarily to stop the growth of influenza virus.
The medication slows the pace of disease progression. It is found that the effective concentration of amantadine is facilitated for the period from 2 to 8 hours after a single dose; the clinical effect occurs within an hour and lasts an average of 2-4 hours, although in some cases up to 7-8 hours.
Amantadine: pharmacological action
The pharmacotherapeutic efficacy of amantadine is confirmed in many studies. Varying degrees of improvement were observed in 66% of rigidity, tremor, akinesia and rigidity case. The optimal dose of amantadine is considered to be 300 mg per day, though it may vary depending on the condition. In some cases, it increases up to 400-500 mg if no effect at lower doses is achieved. If the treatment was ceased and appointed again, a pronounced pharmacotherapeutic effect is oftentimes observed.
The effectiveness comparison research has not been conducted; therefore, when choosing an effective drug for long-term treatment the approach of successive replacement of drugs can be adopted.
Comparative study antiparkinsonian efficacy of amantadine and anticholinergics as first-line drugs at an early stage, as well as a comparison of their ability to delay the onset of levodopa therapy have confirmed the effectiveness of the drug. The empirical evidence suggests that the effectiveness of both types of drugs is approximately equal. Therefore, the choice of drugs for initial monotherapy performed taking into account the features of the mechanism of action and possible side effects. The combination of these agents enhances the therapeutic effect by reducing the dose of each.
Increasing antiparkinsonian effect in combination with levodopa drugs amantadine is not achieved due to a simple additive effect, but due to the combination therapy. When adding amantadine, levodopa concentration increases in blood gradually. Due to its properties the drugs is prescribed for correction of dystonia and motor fluctuations in long-term therapy in conjunction with levodopa.
Amantadine has both peripheral and central side effects. Peripheral side effects of amantadine appear as swelling in the distal extremities (usually the legs). Central side effects are anxiety, dizziness and insomnia. In the research group gastrointestinal side effects were observed in 4% of cases, cardiovascular - 4%, neurological - 11%, vegetative - 13% mental - in 9% of cases. At lower doses side effects diminished or disappeared.
Amantadine dosage and administration methods
The medication is taken pereorally with food. The recommended initial dose for adults is 100 mg per day, if necessary, the dosage may be increased to 200 mg/day; while the maximum daily dose must not exceed 400 mg. In connection with the possible activating effect on the central nervous system are advised to take the last dose no later than 16 hours If the kidney function in elderly patients and reduce the dose and increase the interval between doses. Amantadine usually administered in combination with other antiparkinsonian agents. B /: 200 mg 1-3 times a day during 3 hours (infusion rate of 50-60 drops / min.)
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