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Being an antibiotic, Cipro is generally used to treat bacterial infections, it belongs to the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics and levofloxacin, ofloxacin, gatifloxacin, norfloxacin and others are some of the medicines in this class. The main function of Ciprofloxacin is to stop the multiplication of bacteria by curbing their reproduction, in the process repairs genetic material (DNA) of the bacteria.
STORAGE: Cipro has to be stored below 30C if it is in an Immediate release tablet, whereas extended release tablets can be stored between 15-30C and injections have to be stored between 5-30C but it should is recommend to avoid it from freezing.
PREPARATIONS: Ciprofloxacin tablets are prepares in 250 mg, 500 mg, and 750 mg, where as the extended release tablets are prepared only in 500 mg and 1000 mg and injections are prepared with a concentration200 mg and 400 mg.
Ciprofloxacin are prescribed for the treatment of infections of lungs, skins, joints and bones which are caused by susceptible bacteria. Urinary infections and infectious diarrheas caused by the bacteria called E. coli are also treated using ciprofloxacin
DOSAGE: For most of the infections an oral dose of immediate release tablets are recommended for adults from 250 mg to 750 mg every 12 hours or 500-1000 mg of extended release tablets every 24 hours and injections can be given in 200 mg to 400 mg for every 8 to 12 hours.
DRUG INTERACTIONS: Ciprofloxacin should not be used along with theophylline, if it is administered along with theophylline which is used to open airways in the treatment of asthma can lead to elevated, toxic blood levels to an extend that it can lead to seizures, and instability in heart rhythm. In any case if this combination is taken the toxic level in blood cannot be avoided and it is recommended to frequently test the blood to monitor theophylline blood levels.
The absorption ciprofloxacin will be reduced if taken along with Iron salts such as ferrous sulfate as it forms into ciprofloxacin-iron complex and that is not absorbable, in the same way antacids may also reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin. In case the patients are on iron salts or antacids along with ciprofloxacin, the ciprofloxacin should be given either two hours before or six hours after the iron salt or antacid are given.
Blood thinning effect of warfarin will increase if administered along with Ciprofloxacin; however the reason for this is unknown. Pregnant, children, adolescents below 18 years and nursing mothers should avoid the intake of Ciprofloxacin, as it may affect their health.
SIDE EFFECTS: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, rash, headache, and restlessness are the most frequent side effects of ciprofloxacin. However there may be rare allergic reactions, such as hives and anaphylaxis. Ciprofloxacin is better avoided in patients with central nervous system diseases such as seizures, as rare seizures have been reported in patients administered ciprofloxacin.
All fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics including ciprofloxacin are been associated with tendinitis and even rupture of tendons, particularly the Achilles tendon, hence many physicians recommend their patients to avoid exercise while they are taking fluoroquinolone antibiotics.
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