The deficiency of potassium and magnesium as a health risk factor
In the European Union and North America, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death of every second adult with nearly 2 million deaths per year. According to WHO experts, the CVD in 2010 takes a leading place in the structure of mortality among socially significant populations in most economically developed countries in the world; this disease has already taken the lives of 18.5 million, and in 2015 this figure is expected to reach 20 million people. According to the Framingham study, which took place over 20 years, 12% of all natural deaths occur in sudden death. In 70% of cases the cause of sudden cardiac death is severe hemodynamic pumping activity of the heart, cause unless electrophysiological changes of heart rhythm - arrhythmogenic death due to violation of intracellular electrolyte balance.
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If the the problem of human health can be associated with the form of an iceberg, it can be argued that the disease is only its surface part. And sometimes the root causes of violations of the coordinated functioning of the body, due to the development of any pathology remain unclear until the end. It is important to remember that all the organs and systems require a daily intake of essential nutrients, including minerals and micronutrients.
Maintaining a healthy balance of potassium and magnesium in the body is the basis of lasting health, which actualizes by the interest in the problems of studying the biological role of macro and micronutrients. Potassium and magnesium are of the most prevalent cations in the body, their drawback plays a key role in the occurrence of the functional disorders of the central nervous (CNS) and cardiovascular (CVD) systems. The importance of optimal balance for the normal functioning of the body at the moment is difficult to overestimate.
In recent years the attention of researchers in different fields of clinical medicine was attracted to the problem of shortage of magnesium and potassium - reduction of its concentration inside the cell - and its role in various pathological conditions of organs and systems. Magnesium was first isolated by English chemist Gefri Davy in 1808, is a major divalent metal (Mg++) of the second group of the Periodic System, with atomic unit mass of 24.305. In ionized form is a positive ion - cation double positive charge (Mg ++); it is one of the most abundant elements on earth. Especially its concentration is relatively high in the water of the oceans (0.13%), which is close to the electrolyte composition of blood serum.
Magnesium (Mg++) concentration in the body takes place among other cations (sodium, potassium, calcium). Magnesium and potassium in combination with the basic inorganic chemical elements: calcium, sodium, chlorine, phosphorous, fluorine, sulfur, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen ion determines 99% of the human body. It is now established that the presence of at least 290 genes and protein fragments in the sequence of the human genome which are capable of attracting Mg ++ and K + ions as cofactors plurality of enzymes participating in over 300 intracellular biochemical reactions.
Magnesium is a natural physiological calcium antagonist, a universal regulator of physiological and biochemical processes in the body: it controls ATP hydrolysis, oxidation and reduces phosphorylation uncoupling regulates glycolysis and the accumulation of lactate, promotes cells fixation and provides cellular membrane polarization. Magnesium controls the spontaneous electrical activity of nerve tissue and cardiac conduction system, ensures the normal functioning of all subcellular structures cardiomyocytes, which determines its versatility in cardiocyte protection. Magnesium is involved in the process of energy (ATP synthesis), plastic (synthesis of protein, lipids, nucleic acids necessary for the synthesis of DNA), reparative exchange processes, electrolyte metabolism and the synthesis of connective tissue; involved in relaxation of muscle fibers, reduces platelet aggregation and supports normal membrane potential of electroexcitability tissues.
Neurologic manifestations of magnesium deficiency are as follows: irritability, depression, sleep disturbances, decreased performance, memory, hearing acuity, occurrence of tinnitus, dizziness, muscle cramps, etc. As the results of a large prospective clinical study involving more than 41 thousand women aged 38 to 63 years, there is an inverse relationship between magnesium intake and blood pressure levels: the deficiency has an obvious negative impact.
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