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Myambutol (Ethambutol)

Description

Dosage - 100, 400mg
Generic - ethambutol
Drug class - Miscellaneous antituberculosis agents
Main Indication - Tuberculosis of all forms
Administration type - oral intake
Manufacturer - Wyeth
Pregnancy category - risk cannot be ruled out
FDA records - starting from 1967


Myambutol represents the class of anti-TB drugs, providing a noteworthy bacteriostatic effect. The pharmacological action lies in actively developing mycobacteria cells penetration through RNA synthesis inhibition, thus violating the cellular metabolism, causing cessation of reproduction and bacteria elimination. The preparations effectiveness is best observed in rapidly dividing cells. The drug inhibits the growth and proliferation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to streptomycin, isoniazid, PAS, ethionamide and kanamycin. When the medication is used in monotherapy, the resistance of mycobacteria is growing fast enough.

As a new molecular entity, ethambutol, the active ingredient of the drug, has been added to the FDA registry in 1967, the latest recording dates back to 2009 by Lupin Pharmaceutical. In the US the drug is only available by prescription, the manufacturer supplying Myambutol in the country is Wyeth. The medication is produced in tablet form containing 100 or 400mg of the active ingredient.

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Indications for use

The preparation is primarily designed for the treatment of all forms of tuberculosis (although it may be used in cases not indicated in the insert).

Contraindications

The treatment must not be initiated in case of hypersensitivity to any ingredient, optic neuritis, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, inflammatory diseases of eyes, gout and chronic renal failure.

The drug must not be used in children under 18 years old, as well as in pregnant women and during lactation.

Side effects

Adverse reaction in nervous system, sensory organs, digestive tract and allergic reactions are possible. According to sideffects.embl.de, aggregating the info on clinical trials and post-marketing studies in side effects, the most widely spread adverse reactions are headache, dizziness, nausea, loss of appetite, problems with eyesight (please, check the insert before you start the treatment).

Dosage and administration

Myambutol is designed for oral intake; the dosage and prolongation of treatment is determined by the doctor. During the initial treatment the 15 mg/kg single daily dosage is appointed. During the secondary course of treatment, the dosage of 25 mg/kg daily during 2 months is appointed; upon completion of the course the dosage is decreased to 15 mg/kg daily. In children, as a rule, the dosage of 20-25 mg/kg is appointed (taken once each 24 hours, preferably after breakfast).

The maximum daily dose is 2g. In those suffering from renal insufficiency, dosage adjustment is required depending on the condition of the patient and creatinine clearance level.

Special instructions

After the initiation of treatment coughs may increase, as well as the amount of sputum. As a rule, the drug is assigned only in conjunction with other pharmaceuticals. During the long-term therapy, monitoring of the function vision organs is required; observing the picture of peripheral blood and checking liver and kidneys functional state is also essential. When taking Myambutol the patient should drive and perform tasks that require concentration with caution as potentially hazardous impact affecting psychomotor reactions is possible.

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