The Onychocryptosis Causes & Symptoms
Onychocryptosis is a common pathological condition, known in the wide masses as ingrown nail. The disease develops under the influence of increased growth of the nail plate, leading to its incorporation into the edge of the nail fold. Most oftenly it hits the outer edge of the big toe. The development of the inflammatory process results into extremely painful sensations.
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Causes of ingrown nail
Mentioned below are the most common ingrown nail causes:
1. Wide foot, the longitudinal and transverse flat foot, valgus deformity and other congenital anatomical abnormalities.
2. Excessive fat surrounding the nail phalanges of the toes.
3. Injuries of the nail and toes.
4. Long-term plaster immobilization, complicating the right nail care.
5. Wearing narrow or a smaller shoe.
6. Wrong nail care (too short or rounded trimming), leading to inflammation over time growing into onychocryptosis.
7. Paronychia (nail infection) and other inflammatory diseases of the nail bed.
8. Fungal nail plates (onychomycosis).
9. Complications of pregnancy and other conditions that lead to swelling of the feet and the plunging nail plates in the soft tissue.
Ingrown nails the course of action
Unfortunately, to date, the mechanism of the disease state is not yet fully understood. However, experts are inclined to believe that part of the regrown nail begins to grow into the skin of skin roller due to a constant load, even with the smallest deformation. In the development of the pathological process the individual structure of the nail and surrounding tissue play crucial role. In the case where the nail is constantly subjected to a load from the outside and does not feel enough resistance on the part of the nail fold, it often provokes ingrowth.
Most often found ingrown nail on the big toe, but at the same time, in recent years significantly increased the number of patients with ingrown nail problem on the other fingers (sometimes even all the toes are subjected to the disease, although until recently such cases are extremely rare).
Total ingrown nails tend to expectant mothers or women who are in the later stages of pregnancy. It should be noted that in this case the disease process progressing rapidly and often leads to loss of motor activity.
In adult patients Onychocryptosis proceeds in four steps. In the first stage of the pathological process in the area of the nail fold swelling and redness develops. At this stage, pain occurs only when pressing the thumb. In phase II part of the nail growing into the soft tissues of the nail fold, resulting in aggravation of inflammation and the development of purulent process.
Stage III is considered to be the stage of infection. At stage IV the junction of the soft tissue to the side of the nail plate has enhanced granulation, leading to the appearance of fleshy outgrowth of tumor. It should be noted that the last stage of onychocryptosis accompanying the transition of acute inflammation in chronic takes pretty much time to develop.
1. Most often encountered in clinical practice case is lateral onychocryptosis, wherein the nail grows laterally.
2. In the ingrown nail growing properly in the adjacent tissue okolonogtevogo roller diagnosed distal onychocryptosis.
3. Ingrowing of nails, occurring due to hypertrophy of soft tissue of around the nail roller, causing it to build-up on the nail plate, but the nail itself remains changed.
4. Onychocryptosis that arises from the violation of the direction of growth of the nail plate. The nail axis shifts, growing into the around the nail roller or in the soft tissue of the nail bed.
5. Onychocryptosis of all fingers is another, yet quite rare form disease that is most often caused by disorders of nail plates, or becomes a complication of trauma. As a pathological condition can develop after properly executed manicure, hypercalcemia, or fungal nail infections.
Symptoms of onychocryptosis
The first sign of onychocryptosis is pain that makes itself felt when walking; redness and swelling of periungual tissues develops. Very often, people try to cut their annoying sharp edge of the nail, but it leads to more ingrown nail plate. As a rule, the wound is penetrated by infection, which entails the development of purulent inflammation.
In this condition, patients experience severe pain, their movement becomes problematic, sometimes you can not even make a firm step because of the affected limb. Gradually developed necrosis of soft tissues and periungual nail plate itself. As a result, the deformation of the finger, wearing shoes and walking becomes almost impossible.
In the transition of the inflammatory process in the chronic stage is marked seal edematous areas, pus become scarce or completely terminated, and around the nail roller appears the build-ups arising from a proliferation of granulation tissue.
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