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Rifampicin is a representative of semi-synthetic antibiotics class and based on a single active ingredient - rifamycin. The medicament boasts an impressive scope of action: the low preparation concentrations demonstrate considerable efficiency against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, leprosy, brucellosis, against Staphylococcus aureus, Chlamydia, Legionella, the causative agent of typhus and streptococci.
Indications for use
The preparation demonstrates confirmed efficiency in the treatment following cases:
- tuberculosis of the lungs and other organs (in the complex therapy);
- tuberculous meningitis (in combination therapy);
- infectious inflammatory diseases, which are caused by susceptible to malaria pathogens (including in the complex therapy of osteomyelitis, severe staph infection, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, leprosy, legioneleza, gonorrhea, otitis, cholecystitis);
The medication also boasts considerable efficiency when it comes to preventive measures:
- atypical mycobacteriosis in HIV-infected patients (adjuvant therapy);
- rabies encephalitis in rabies;
- meningococcal meningitis in the carrier.
How to take Rifampicin in capsules & tablets
The drug in capsules are appointed to adults in the dosages varying from 450 to 900mg split into 1-2 admissions per day. Children from 6 to 12 years a prescribed a dose in 10 mg/kg ration and 1-2 daily intakes. Children over 12 years are prescribed the doses of 10-15 mg/kg and 1-2 admission per day. In the treatment of tuberculosis in adults and children 10 mg/kg one time per day or 15 mg/kg, 2-3 times a week is prescribed. The total duration of treatment is individual due to the therapeutic effect (from several weeks to several months).
Rifampicin is taken periorally on an empty stomach (0.5-1 hours before or 2hrs after eating) and plenty of water. The maximum daily dose equals 1200 mg for adults and 600 mg for children.
The drug is prescribed for adults 1 time a day 1 hour before meals or 2 hours after a meal with plenty of water: patients with body weight up to 40 kg are prescribed 3 pills, 40 kg and more - 4 pills. The drug is recommended for a short initial phase of treatment that lasts 2 months. Then continued the combinative treatment of rifampicin and isoniazid for at least 4 months
Guidelines, precautions and recommendations
A Rifampicin course implies careful medical supervision. Rifampicin monotherapy often leads to the development of resistance to it mycobacteria. Rifampicin should therefore be taken with oniazidom, ethambutol, pyrazinamide and other anti-means. The drug is not indicated for intermittent therapy.
The drug should be applied cautiously in patients who abuse alcohol, malnourished patients with porphyria and in elderly patients. The decision on whether to take a medication treatment course or not is made only with liver function tests ready, while long-term use should be periodically (preferably monthly) study of the blood and liver function.
Rifampicin has a bright red-brown color. Intensive penetration of the drug in saliva, sputum, urine, and lacrimal fluid causes (especially at the beginning of treatment) orange-red coloring; coloring is also possible as for irreversible eye contact lenses.
Prior to prescribing a medication course for pregnant women the potential benefits as well as potential risks for the mother and fetus should be evaluated. The fact should be underlined that the use of rifampicin during the last gestation weeks elevates the risk of bleeding during the postpartum period for both mother and child. Rifampicin is excreted in breast milk. Those abusing alcohol or having an alcohol abusing background risk to contact hepatotoxicity.
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